Stress Inoculation-Induced Indications of Resilience in Monkeys

David M. Lyons; Karen J. Parker
Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2007; 20(4):423-433.


The negative consequences of stress are well-recognized in mental health research. Exposure to early life stressors, for example, increases the risk for the development of mood, anger, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. Interestingly, however, early life stressors have also been linked to the subsequent development of resilience. Variously described as inoculating, immunizing, steeling, toughening, or thriving, the hypothesis that early life stressors provide a challenge that, when overcome, induces adaptations that enhance emotional processing, cognitive control, curiosity, and neuroendocrine regulation is examined in this review of squirrel monkey research.